Distress Tolerance Skills are coping mechanisms and strategies that help individuals cope with intense emotions, crisis situations, and distressing moments without resorting to self-destructive or impulsive behaviors. These skills are particularly valuable for individuals dealing with emotional dysregulation or conditions like borderline personality disorder (BPD). Here’s an elaboration on how to use Distress Tolerance Skills as effective coping mechanisms:
1. STOP Technique:
- “STOP” is a simple but effective distress tolerance skill that stands for “Stop, Take a
step back, Observe, Proceed mindfully.” When you feel overwhelmed by emotions or
in a crisis, pause and take a step back from the situation. Observe what’s happening
and how you’re feeling. Then proceed mindfully, making decisions with a clear and
2. Self-Soothing Activities:
- Engage in self-soothing activities that provide comfort and calm. These can include
taking a warm bath, enjoying a cup of herbal tea, listening to calming music, or
cuddling with a pet or a soft blanket. Self-soothing helps regulate emotions and reduce distress.
3. Distract with Wise Mind ACCEPTS:
- The ACCEPTS acronym stands for Activities, Contributing, Comparisons, Emotions,
Pushing Away, Thoughts, and Sensations. These are various distraction techniques
that can help shift your focus away from distressing emotions. For example,
engaging in a creative activity or contributing to others can divert your attention.
4. IMPROVE the Moment:
- The “IMPROVE” skill involves Imagery, Meaning, Prayer, Relaxation, One thing in
the moment, Vacation, and Encouragement. These techniques can help individuals
improve the moment and change their emotional state. For example, practicing relaxation exercises or using imagery to envision a peaceful place can be helpful.
5. TIP the Body Temperature:
- Altering your body temperature can have an immediate impact on emotional
regulation. Tipping the body temperature involves either taking a cold shower or
placing your face in a bowl of ice water for a short time. This technique can help
reduce emotional intensity and bring you back to the present moment.
6. Pros and Cons:
- Weigh the pros and cons of engaging in self-destructive behaviors versus using
distress tolerance skills. This technique can help you make a rational decision in a crisis by considering the long-term consequences of your actions.
- Practice self-validation by acknowledging your emotions and telling yourself that it’s okay to feel the way you do. Self-validation can reduce emotional distress and self-criticism.
8. Opposite Action:
- When faced with an emotion that doesn’t fit the facts of the situation, practice opposite action. If, for example, you feel the urge to isolate when you’re lonely, take
the opposite action by reaching out to someone for connection.
9. Meditation and Mindfulness:
- Mindfulness and meditation techniques can help you stay present in the moment and
observe your emotions without reacting impulsively. Mindfulness practices can reduce emotional intensity and promote emotional regulation.
10. Grounding Techniques:
- Grounding exercises involve focusing on your physical senses, such as touch, taste, smell, sight, and sound, to stay connected to the present moment. These techniques
can help reduce emotional dissociation.
11. Crisis Survival Skills:
- Develop a crisis survival plan that includes specific strategies for coping with intense emotional distress, such as reaching out for support, using distress tolerance skills, or engaging in self-soothing activities.
12. Distress Tolerance Diary:
- Keep a distress tolerance diary to track your use of distress tolerance skills, their effectiveness, and any improvements in managing intense emotions. This can help you identify which skills work best for you.
When using Distress Tolerance Skills, it’s important to remember that these techniques are not about avoiding or suppressing emotions but about managing them in a healthier and more adaptive way. Over time, with practice, individuals can learn to tolerate distress, reduce emotional suffering, and make more rational decisions in crisis situations. It’s often beneficial to work with a therapist or counselor who specializes in distress tolerance and emotional regulation to develop and refine these skills.